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The University of Edinburgh Humanities and Social Science

Andy Clark: Papers Available Online.

For access to more recent and forthcoming publications, enter 'Clark' into the Edinburgh Research Archive.

The publications icons take you to earlier or pen-ultimate drafts of the materials whose final publication details appear below.

I have grouped the papers into 5 categories, followed by a few odds and ends, and then a list of the full-length monographs. Within the major groupings there is inevitably some topic overlap (especially between categories 1 and 2), so it may be worth poking around a little.

The groupings are:

     1. Robotics, Embodiment, Perception and Action
     2. Dynamics, Representation and Explanation
     3. Language, Thought, and the "Extended Mind"
     4. Concepts, Consciousness and Moral Reason
     5. Connectionism
     Some Odds and Ends
     Full-Length Monographs

To download a free copy of Adobe Acrobat Reader click publications.

1. Robotics, Embodiment, Perception and Action

publications “Artificial Intelligence and the Many Faces of Reason” in S. Stich and T. Warfield (eds) The Blackwell Guide To Philosophy Of Mind (BLACKWELL, 2003)

publications “Is Seeing All It Seems? Action, Reason and the Grand Illusion” in Journal of Consciousness Studies (Volume 9, No.5/6 2002) (Also published in the volume Is The Visual World A Grand Illusion? ( A. Noe (ed) Imprint Academic (Thorverton, UK,2002))

publications “Visual Experience and Motor Action: Are The Bonds Too Tight?” Philosophical Review 110:4:October 2001

publications “From Fish to Fantasy: Reflections on an Embodied Cognitive Science” A shortened and amended version appears as "An Embodied Cognitive Science?" Trends In Cognitive Sciences 3:9:1999 p. 345-351

publications (with Rick Grush) "Towards a Cognitive Robotics" Adaptive Behavior 7:1:1999, p. 5-16

publications "Where Brain, Body and World Collide"" Daedalus : Journal Of The American Academy Of Arts And Sciences (Special Issue on The Brain) Vol 127: no 2: Spring 1998 p. 257-280. Reprinted in G Edelman and J-P Changeux (eds) The Brain (Transaction Publishers, London UK) 257-280. To be reprinted in C.J.Preston (ed) Environment And Belief (Suny Press, NY)

publications "Embodiment and the Philosophy of Mind" in A. O'Hear (ed) Current Issues In Philosophy Of Mind: Royal Institute Of Philosophy Supplement 43 ( Cambridge University Press:1998) P. 35-52. To be reprinted in Alberto Peruzzi (ed) Mind And Causality (Holland, forthcoming 2003). Appears in Spanish as “Incorporizacion y la filosofia de la mente” in P. F.. Martinez-Freire (ed) Filosofia Actual De La Mente. Contrastes: Supplemento 6 (2001)

publications "I am John's Brain" Journal Of Consciousness Studies, 2:2:1995 p.144-8

2. Dynamics, Representation and Explanation

publications “Beyond The Flesh: Some Lessons from a Mole Cricket” Artificial Life (In Press)

publications “Forces, Fields and the Role of Knowledge in Action: Commentary on Randall Beer “The Dynamics of Active Categorical Perception in an Evolved Model Agent”” Adaptive Behavior (in press)

publications (with Pete Mandik) “Selective Representing and World-Making” Minds And Machines 12:2002:383-395

publications "Twisted Tales: Causal Complexity and Cognitive Scientific Explanation" in F. Keil and R.A.Wilson (eds) Explanation And Cognition (MIT Press, 2000) p. 145-166 (originally appeared in Minds And Machines 8:1998: p.79-99)

publications "Genic Representation: Reconciling Content and Causal Complexity" (with M. Wheeler). British Journal For The Philosophy Of Science 50:1: 1999 p.103-135

publications "Time and Mind" Journal Of Philosophy XCV: 7 :1998: p. 354-376

publications "The Dynamical Challenge" Cognitive Science 21:4:1997 p 461-481

publications (with J. Toribio) "Doing Without Representing?" Synthese 101:1994 401-431

3. Language, Thought, and the "Extended Mind"

publications "Memento's Revenge: Objections and Replies to the Extended Mind" to appear in R. Menary (ed) Papers On The Extended Mind

publications "Author's Reply" to symposium on Natural-Born Cyborgs. Metascience, in press

publications "Minds, Brains and Tools" (with a response by Daniel Dennett,) in Hugh Clapin (ed) Philosophy Of Mental Representation (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 2002)

publications “Reasons, Robots and The Extended Mind” Mind And Language 16:2: 2001 p.121-145

publications (with Dave Chalmers) "The Extended Mind" Analysis 58: 1: 1998 p.7-19 Reprinted in The Philosopher's Annual vol XXI-1998 (Ridgeview, 2000) p.59-74 (Reprinted in D. Chalmers (ed) Philosophy Of Mind:Classical And Contemporary Readings (Oxford University Press, 2002)).

publications "Magic Words: How Language Augments Human Computation" in P. Carruthers and J. Boucher (Eds) Language And Thought: Interdisciplinary Themes (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 1998) P.162-183

publications "Economic Reason: The Interplay of Individual Learning and External Structure" J. Drobak and J. Nye (eds) The Frontiers Of The New Institutional Economics (Academic Press: San Diego, CA 1996) p.269-290

publications "Leadership and Influence: The Manager as Coach, Nanny and Artificial DNA" in J. Clippinger (ed) The Biology Of Business: De-Coding The Natural Laws Of Enterprise (Jossey-Bass: San Francisco,1999) p. 47-66

publications "Linguistic Anchors in the Sea of Thought" Pragmatics And Cognition vol 4 no 1 1996 p 93-103

4. Concepts, Consciousness and Moral Reason

publications (with Jesse Prinz) “Putting Concepts to Work: Some Thoughts for the 21st Century (a reply to Fodor). Mind And Language 19:1:2004, pp. 57-69 (in press)

publications "That Special Something: Dennett on the Making of Minds and Selves" in A. Brook and D. Ross (eds) Daniel Dennett (Cambridge University Press, 2002)

publications “Commentary on J.K O’Regan and A Noe: A sensorimotor account of vision and visual consciousness” Behavioral And Brain Sciences 24:5: 2001

publications "A Case Where Access Implies Qualia?" Analysis 60:265:2000 p.30-38

publications "Word and Action: Reconciling Rules and Know-How in Moral Cognition" in R. Campbell and B. Hunter (eds) Moral Epistemology Naturalized: Canadian Journal Of Philosophy Supp. Volume 26 (2000) (University of Calgary Press, Alberta, Canada) p.267-290

publications "Visual Awareness and Visuomotor Action" Journal Of Consciousness Studies 6:11-12: 1999. p.1-18

publications "Connectionism, Moral Cognition, and Collaborative Problem Solving" in L.May, M.Friedman and A.Clark (eds) Mind And Morals (MIT Press,1996).

publications "Making Moral Space: A Reply To Churchland" in R. Campbell and B. Hunter (eds) Moral Epistemology Naturalized: Canadian Journal Of Philosophy Supp. Volume 26 (2000) (University of Calgary Press, Alberta, Canada) p.307-312

5. Connectionism

publications (with Chris Eliasmith) Entry on "Philosophical Issues in Brain Theory" for the Handbook Of Brain Theory And Neural Networks (ed, M. Arbib) MIT Press, second edition, June 2000)

publications (with Chris Thornton) "Trading Spaces: Connectionism and the Limits of Uninformed Learning" Behavioral And Brain Sciences 20:1 1997 57-67

publications "Minimal Rationalism" Mind 102.408, 1993 p.587-610

publications (with Annette Karmiloff-Smith) "The Cognizer's Innards: a Philosophical and Psychological Perspective on the Development of Thought." in Mind And Language vol 8 no 4 1993 p. 487-519

publications (with Annette Karmiloff-Smith) "What's Special about the Development of the Human Mind/Brain?" Mind And Language vol 8 no 4 1993 p. 569-581

publications "The Presence of a Symbol" Connection Science 4:3/4 1992 p 193-205 Reprinted in J.Haugeland (ed) Mind Design Ii (MIT Press,1997) p.377-393

publications “Microfunctionalism: Connectionism and the Scientific Explanation of Mental States” This is an amended version of some material that first appeared way back in A. Clark, Microcognition: Philosophy, Cognitive Science, and Parallel Distributed Processing (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1989), Ch. 1, 2, and 6. It now appears in German translation in Metzinger,T (Ed) Das Leib-Seele-Problem In Der Zweiten Helfte Des 20 Jahrhunderts (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. 1999).

publications "Connectionism, Competence, and Explanation" Brit. J. Phil. Sci. 41. 1990: 195-222.

publications "Author's Response: Relational Learning Re-examined" (with Chris Thornton) Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20:1 1997:83-90.

publications "Reading the Generalizer's Mind" (with Chris Thornton)

Some Odds and Ends

publications “The Twisted Matrix: Dream, Simulation or Hybrid?”² to appear in C. Grau (ed) Philosophical Essays on the Matrix (Oxford University Press,2004). Also appears on the official Warner Bros Matrix website at:

publications “Local Associations and Global Reason: Fodor’s Frame Problem and Second-Order Search” Cognitive Science Quarterly 2:2:2002 :115-140

  “Clark’s Law: Everything Leaks” Invited Contribution to John Brockman’s World Question Center 2004 electronically published at

Full-Length Monographs

The various bits of work, despite ranging all the way from stuff on neural nets to work on economic institutions and the scaffoldings of material culture, do kind of hang together (if you squint a bit). Here’s the rough idea, keyed to the various full-length treatments, now presented from oldest to newest:


Microcognition: Philosophy, Cognitive Science and Parallel Distributed Processing, MIT Press/Bradford Books, Cambridge: MA. 1989.
  • Embracing connectionism and rejecting symbolic AI as our best account of internal processing, and a plea for more attention to biological reality. See it at


Associative Engines: Connectionism, Concepts and Representational Change (MIT Press, Bradford Books,1993)
  • Connectionism allows us to develop much richer stories about the role of the learning environment. The study of mind and of cognitive development go hand in hand. See it at


Being There: Putting Brain, Body and World Together Again (MIT Press, Bradford Books 1997)
  • Work on robotics, development, and embodied cognition further highlight the complex interplay between internal processing and the active use of body and world. See it at


Natural-Born Cyborgs: Minds, Technologies and the Future of Human Intelligence (Oxford University Press, NY. 2003)
  • Higher cognition trades heavily on a potent positive feedback cycle running through language and material culture, and the process is gathering speed. See it at


Mindware: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Cognitive Science (Oxford University Press, 2001.)